Syed Jahanzaib Personal Blog to Share Knowledge !

November 28, 2019

Virtualization: Quick Notes for myself

vmware esxi

VCSA 6.7 | 503 errors while accessing vcsa portal

503 Error#1

While accessing VCSA via web browser, we faced following error


Login to VCSA by SSH, & issue below cmd’s

shell.set --enabled true
service-control --status --all

if you see services in STOPPED: section, then issue below cmd to start all services

service-control --start --all

Now try to access the VCSA via browser & it should work fine.

503 Error#2

If you are seeing seat partition getting full, its better to extend that disk via ESXI server & then extend it using VCSA cmd’s. Also you can truncate the DB to remove old data logs.


Login to VCSA by SSH, & issue below cmd’s

shell.set --enabled true
# Login to Database
/opt/vmware/vpostgres/current/bin/psql -d VCDB -U postgres

This will display the top 30 largest tables within the vCenter Server database

SELECT nspname || '.' || relname AS "relation", pg_size_pretty(pg_total_relation_size(C.oid)) AS "total_size" FROM pg_class C LEFT JOIN pg_namespace N ON (N.oid = C.relnamespace) WHERE nspname NOT IN ('pg_catalog', 'information_schema') AND C.relkind <> 'i' AND nspname !~ '^pg_toast' ORDER BY pg_total_relation_size(C.oid) DESC LIMIT 30;

You will see tables as per following

VCDB=# SELECT nspname || '.' || relname AS "relation", pg_size_pretty(pg_total_relation_size(C.oid)) AS "total_size" FROM pg_class C LEFT JOIN pg_namespace N ON (N.oid = C.relnamespace) WHERE nspname NOT IN ('pg_catalog', 'information_schema') AND C.relkind <> 'i' AND nspname !~ '^pg_toast' ORDER BY pg_total_relation_size(C.oid) DESC LIMIT 30;
relation | total_size
vc.vpx_event_arg_8 | 145 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_2 | 143 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_1 | 143 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_92 | 143 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_10 | 143 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_11 | 143 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_16 | 143 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_13 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_3 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_90 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_9 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_4 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_91 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_15 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_14 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_87 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_5 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_12 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_88 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_89 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_6 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_21 | 142 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_22 | 141 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_23 | 141 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_17 | 141 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_7 | 141 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_19 | 140 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_24 | 140 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_18 | 140 MB
vc.vpx_event_arg_20 | 140 MB
(30 rows)

Now  by seeing the table names, you can Truncate the large tables individually

For example:

truncate table vc.vpx_event_arg_8 cascade;

Keep cleaning as per disk space requirements, then Exit the vCenter Server Appliance database by running this command:

Verify the space is reclaimed by running the df -h command.

Preferably restart the VCSA services or restart the VCSA server so that alerts can clear up quickly

Read below vmware guide for more information

VCSA DB Tables Automatic cleanup via SCRIPTING ! Workaround using BASH SCRIPTING

First, Connect to VCSA via putty, & set shell

shell.set --enabled true

Now create two files, one is the bash file that will execute an sql query, & then the second file which will hold the sql query.

First the SQL query file

vi /root/dbcleanup.sql

& paste following data in it.

rec record;
FOR rec IN
FROM pg_tables
WHERE tablename ~ '^vpx_event_[0-9].*'
ORDER BY tablename
|| quote_ident(rec.schemaname) || '.'
|| quote_ident(rec.tablename) || ' CASCADE';

rec record;
FOR rec IN
FROM pg_tables
WHERE tablename ~ '^vpx_event_arg_[0-9].*'
ORDER BY tablename
|| quote_ident(rec.schemaname) || '.'
|| quote_ident(rec.tablename) || ' CASCADE';

Now the BASH script that will actually trigger the above dbcleanup.sql query file

vi /root/

and paste following lines in it

/opt/vmware/vpostgres/current/bin/psql -d VCDB postgres -f /root/dbcleanup.sql

Press :wq to save & exit VI editor.

Now schedule it to run every hour or as you like

crontab -e 

Press i to go in edit mode and paste following

@hourly /root/

Now press Escape, and then :wq which will result in save & exit the vi editor.

Congrats ! all done. 

This was written in particular to VCSA ver 6.7 only !



ESXI Server: ‘SEL Fullness’ message

Under ESXI, or VCENTER , I was seeing following alert ..

System Management Software 1 SEL Fullness: Log almost full

Solution # 1

In vSphere 6.7 , Navigate to following and reset event log

Monitor > Tasks and Events > Hardware Health > SYSTEM EVENT LOG > RESET EVENT LOG

Solution # 2

Enable SSH on that esxi host, and connect to it via ssh client & issue below cmd’s

localcli hardware ipmi sel clear
/etc/init.d/sfcbd-watchdog restart restart

For few minutes it will show disconnected in vcenter, after few minutes, Refresh the Webclient & related errors will be cleared.


Updating ESXI 6.5 to 6.7u3 from the CLI

Recently I did some major updates in our virtual infrastructure including ESXi (ver 6.5.0, 10719125) ,  Vcenter & Veeam ( . Things were updated in following order

  • Veeam B&R upgraded to ver
  • Vcenter upgraded to ver
  • ESXI hosts upgraded to ver 6.5.0, 10719125

For ESXI update from 6.5 to 6.7u3. In the past I always use Installer CD/USB to upgrade from older esxi to new version, but for this approach, I have to compromise on my holidays or sit very late in office. This time time I took another approach and upgraded all the esxi hosts one by one on sundays remotely from the home using offline bundle installer & esxi CLI method. This is how I accomplished it.

I first downloaded the 6.7 update offline bundle from the Lenovo site (since we have all the IBM/Lenovo brand servers therefore I selected this option to avoid any hardware driver issue).

Afterwards I uploaded this offline bundle zip file to Esxi datastore, then logged in to esxi host via SSH, and issued

esxcli software vib install -d /vmfs/volumes/5d0cf64f-a83e7c86-6a4d-40f2e922c64a/

Note: make sure to change datastore and filename as required.

It took few minutes, once I saw SUCCESS message, I completed the process by simply rebooted the ESXI host by cmd


Better approach is to update rather than install

esxcli software vib update -d /vmfs/volumes/5d0cf64f-a83e7c86-6a4d-40f2e922c64a/

Difference between VIB update and VIB install

Excerpt from “;

To install or update a .zip file, use the -d option. To install or update a .vib file use the -v option.

Using the update command is the recommended method for patch application. Using this command applies all of the newer contents in a patch, including all security fixes. Contents of the patch that are a lower revision than the existing packages on the system are not applied.

Using the install command overwrites the existing packages in the system with contents of the patch you are installing, including installing new packages and removing old packages. The install command may downgrade packages on the system and should be used with caution. If required, the install command can be used to downgrade a system (only for image profiles) when the –allow-downgrade flag is set.

The install method has the possibility of overwriting existing drivers. If you are using 3rd party ESXi images, VMware recommends using the update method to prevent an unbootable state.

Check esxi version from CLI

esxcli system version get
Product : VMware ESXi
Version : 6.7.0
Build : Releasebuild-14320388
Update : 3
Patch : 73


Will update more

Syed Jahanzaib

November 26, 2019

Assigning friendly/fix name to USB device

Filed under: Linux Related — Tags: , , , , , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 9:34 AM


Teltonika Usb Modem

Teltonika Usb Modem


We have Teltonika USB modem connected to our Linux box (Ubuntu) & Kannel is configured as SMS gateway for our network devices so that they can send Info/Alert SMS incase of any failure via HTTP method.

/dev/ttyACM0 is default port name on which this modem is detected by default BUT it happens Often that when the Linux box reboots, modem is detected on different port name like ttyACM1 which result in failure of kannel modem detection as the name is hardcoded in /etc/kannel/kannel.conf

To settle this issue, we fixed the USB device with our customized name , and in kannel we used this fixed name which sorted the modem port name change issue.


Run following CMD

udevadm info -a -p $(udevadm info -q path -n /dev/ttyACM1)

& look for following attributes & note down both

  • idVendor
  • idProduct


now Edit or create new file in /etc/udev by

nano /etc/udev/rules.d/99-usb-serial.rules

& paste following

SUBSYSTEM=="tty", ATTRS{idVendor}=="1d12", ATTRS{idProduct}=="3e11", SYMLINK+="gsm"

Make sure to change the idVendor & idProduct numbers that you noted in step #1.

Save & Exit.

Now issue below CMD to reload udev rules

sudo udevadm trigger

if all goes well, then look for your new device name gsm in /dev folder

ls -l /dev/gsm

Ok result would be similar to this

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Nov 26 09:04 /dev/gsm -> ttyACM1

Syed Jahanzaib


November 23, 2019

DMASOFTLAB Radius Manager – Adding custom attribute to facilitate Dynamic address list on Mikrotik

Filed under: Mikrotik Related, Radius Manager — Tags: , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 3:04 PM

Quick Recipe: If you are using DMA Radius Manager & want to assign Dynamic Address list to a service so that user can automatically be added to dynamic address list under NAS, you can do so by using custom RADIUS attributesunder services section

  • Login to Admin Panel
  • Goto Services
  • Click on your desired service example 4mb
  • Under `Custom RADIUS attributes` , add below attribute
Mikrotik-Address-List := 4mb

adding attribute in radius manager service

Save , & test any user authentication by CMD,

rmauth test 1

freeradius attribute for dma radius manager test via cmd


on NAS dynamic address list will be created for each user of this service group. Late ryou can use this address list to mark connections / packets/ routing/queue etc.

4mb pppoe.PNG

Happy Attributing 😉


November 8, 2019

Freeradius 3 with Mikrotik – Part-1 # Time to upgrade


fr logo

Disclaimer! This is important!

Every Network is different , so one solution cannot be applied to all. Therefore try to understand logics & create or modify the solutions as per your network scenario. Never follow copy paste blindly, [unfortunately this has become our national culture]

My humble request is that kindly donot consider me as an expert on this stuff, I am NOT certified in anything Mikrotik/Cisco/Linux or Windows. However I have worked with some core networks and I read , research & try stuff all of the time. So I am not speaking/posting about stuff I am formerly trained in, I pretty much go with experience and what I have learned on my own. And , If I don’t know something then I read & learn all about it.

So , please don’t hold me/my-postings to be always 100 percent correct. I make mistakes just like everybody else. However – I do my best, learn from my mistakes and try to help others

Syed Jahanzaib~

This is another post about installation & configuration of ISP related billing system called Freeradius version 3.0.19. My aim is to let people know that creating your own Radius Billing system is not a ROCKET SCIENCE.

The only thing required is your ultimate passion to achieve the goal & with the right search, reading, understanding logic’s, you can do all on your own. I strongly encourage all to read the FR mailing list and Google search

For older version of Freeradius ver 2.x series, you may read below

Make your own Billing system in Linux with Latest version of Freeradius 3.0.19 / MySQL 5.7.27

by Syed Jahanzaib / aacable[at]hotmail[dot]com

[This Guide will be updated with many further supporting posts)

The aim of writing this post was that there are number of radius products available on the internet with lots of features, each have some unique features. But this is also true that none of them is 100% perfect for every type of ISP. The reason is that every ISP/Network have different sort of local requirements and billing mode. If you have searched on google you will find that there are tons of guides for freeradius implementation, but most of them have either incomplete data , or difficult explanation, or does not meet the practical requirements of Desi ISP. That’s why I started this guide so that info that is not common on the net can be shared here. plus most important you can learn on your own using this baby step.

In this post I have made some quick guide to install a very basic level of billing system by using Freeradius/mysql on UBUNTU 18.4 [64bit]. Mikrotik routerboard with firmware version 6.45.7 is being used as NAS to connect user and freeradius will be used for authentication/accounting billing system.

Let’s Rock …


Hardware Software components used in this post


  • Xeon 2Ghz CPU x 2
  • 64 GB RAM
  • 480GB SSD x 8 disks in RAID-10
  • Vmware ESXI 6.5 installed on bare metal hardware
  • VM guest created for Radius role with following config
    40 GB RAM / 12 CORES VCPU / 300 GB Disk Space


  • OS: Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS Server Edition [Click here for Download Link]
  • FreeRADIUS: Version 3.0.19 [using apt-get with custom repository]
  • Mysql Version: mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.27, for Linux (x86_64) using EditLine wrapper [using apt-get]
  • IP scheme

    Radius IP =
    Mikrotik IP =



Quick Tips for Ubuntu OS before rolling out FR


Network address configuration


In Ubuntu 18, network addresses are configured slightly differently as compared to earlier version of ubuntu series. To add / modify IP addresses, edit 50-cloud-init.yaml file

nano /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml

A working configuration file is attached as below. Make sure to follow syntaxes as defined. U18 is quite sensitive regarding this section.

# Ubuntu 18 Network Config file # Syed Jahanzaib
# Interface Name
# Interface IP Address
version: 2
<span style="color: var(--color-text);">



ROOT Login Access on local machine is not Allowed by Default on Fresh installation of Ubuntu 18

After fresh installation of Ubuntu 18 server edition, you cannot login with root ID by default. & to perform various functions, you may need ROOT access.

Therefore using your normal user account , issue below cmd’s to change root password in order to enable root login access

sudo passwd root

it will ask you to enter current user password, then it will ask to enter new root password two times. Do so and then you can change to use root user by using

# su

and it will ask you to enter root password, Enter the password that you setup in above steps. and you will be switched to ROOT.

Allow SSH Login for remote access using PUTTY or any other tool


By default, Ubuntu 18 will not allow you to remotely login via SSH.

Edit file

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

now search for

PermitRootLogin prohibit-password

Change it to

PermitRootLogin yes

Save & Exit , Restart ssh service

service ssh restart

Another quick copy paste method to enable root ssh access

sudo sed -i 's/#PermitRootLogin prohibit-password/PermitRootLogin yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
service ssh restart

NTP configuration for timezone configuration &

Automatic time update from the internet [for KHI/PK]

apt-get -y install ntp ntpdate
cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Karachi /etc/localtime
sudo /etc/init.d/ntp restart

Disable iPV6


if ipv6 not required, its a good idea to disable it from beginning.

Use below CMD

echo "net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1" >> /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6=1" /etc/sysctl.conf
sysctl -p

for further ensurity, now edit

nano /etc/default/grub

& change


Save & exit & run below cmd to update GRUB

sudo update-grub

Installing components required for general operations including MYSQL as well

Install supporting tools like mysql / phpmyadmin etc [make sure you enter mysql password when it asks ]

#During installation, it will ask you to enter PASSWORD, dont let it skip, be vigilant 

apt-get -y install apache2 mc wget make gcc mysql-server mysql-client curl
apt-get -y install phpmyadmin

NOTE# mySQL Empty Root Password 

Try to login to mysql with your defined password. In case if mysql is letting you in with any random or empty password, use this CMD to change mysql root password

Use these steps only if you have mysql login issue with empty/any password

mysql -uroot -pANYPASS
UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string= '' WHERE User='root';
UPDATE mysql.user SET plugin = '' WHERE user = 'root';
UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string=PASSWORD('zaib1234') WHERE User='root';
UPDATE mysql.user SET plugin = 'mysql_native_password' WHERE user = 'root';

Don’t forget to restart mySQL service, this part wasted some time of mine

service mysql restart

fr logo with hatFR logo new .png

~ Installation & Configuration part ~
~ Freeradius version 3.0.19 ~

To install freeradius 3.0.19 via apt-get on ubuntu 18.4 server, first update the repository by using following

echo "deb bionic main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list

Save and exit, and issue below cmd

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver --recv-key 0x41382202
sudo apt-get update


Now using apt-get install method , we will install FR ver 3.0.19

apt-get -y install freeradius freeradius-mysql freeradius-utils

Once installed, check the FR version, & it should be similar to this

freeradius -v

radiusd: FreeRADIUS Version 3.0.19 (git #ab4c76709), for host x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
FreeRADIUS Version 3.0.19
Copyright (C) 1999-2019 The FreeRADIUS server project and contributors
There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A
You may redistribute copies of FreeRADIUS under the terms of the
GNU General Public License
For more information about these matters, see the file named COPYRIGHT

SQL Section:

Create DB in mysql

# Make sure to change password which you setup while installing mySQL

mysql -uroot -pzaib1234
create database radius;
grant all on radius.* to radius@localhost identified by "zaib1234";

Now import sql schema file into the mysql

mysql -u root -pzaib1234 radius < /etc/freeradius/mods-config/sql/main/mysql/schema.sql

Now create SQL link

ln -s /etc/freeradius/mods-available/sql /etc/freeradius/mods-enabled/


now edit /etc/freeradius/mods-enabled/sql

nano /etc/freeradius/mods-enabled/sql

& make modification like in SQL { section

change to below

sql {
dialect = "mysql"
driver = "rlm_sql_${dialect}"
mysql {
# there are few lines related to certs, delete them as we donot require them
warnings = auto

# Connection info:
server = "localhost"
port = 3306
login = "radius"
password = "zaib1234"
# Change password as you configured in initial steps/zaib
# Database table configuration for everything except Oracle
radius_db = "radius"

Save & exit.

Adding your NAS in mysql NAS table

TIP: Quick CMD to add NAS in table,

mysql -uroot -pzaib1234 -e "use radius; INSERT INTO nas (id, nasname, shortname, type, ports, secret, server, community, description) VALUES (NULL, '', NULL, 'other', NULL, '123456', NULL, NULL, 'RADIUS Client');"


mysql> select * from nas;
| id | nasname | shortname | type | ports | secret | server | community | description |
| 1 | | NULL  | other | 3799 | 123456 | | NULL | RADIUS Client |
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Create TEST USER for validating freeradius & mysql installation

We will now create a simple Test USER in mySQL RADIUS DB for verification / test purposes. It will have

  1. Username Password
  2. Mikrotik Rate Limit for Bandwidth Limitation, example 1mb/1mb
  3. Expiration date time
  4. Simultaneous Use set to 1 , to prevent Multiple login of same ID (it requires further modifications in DEFAULT section of sites enabled)
mysql -uroot -pzaib1234
use radius;
INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES ( NULL , 'zaib', 'Cleartext-Password', ':=', 'zaib');
INSERT INTO radreply (username, attribute, op, value) VALUES ('zaib', 'Mikrotik-Rate-Limit', '==', '1024k/1024k');
INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Expiration', ':=', '13 Jan 2029 11:00');
INSERT INTO radcheck (username,attribute,op,value) VALUES ('zaib', 'Simultaneous-Use', ':=', '1');


Testing FREERADIUS connection using FR built-in tools

It’s time that we should test freeradius connectivity. in first Terminal, issue below cmd to start freeradius in DEBUG mode

service freeradius stop
freeradius -X

If FR configurall are configured correctly, then you will see something like below

Listening on auth address port 18120 bound to server inner-tunnel
Listening on auth address * port 1812 bound to server default
Listening on acct address * port 1813 bound to server default
Listening on auth address :: port 1812 bound to server default
Listening on acct address :: port 1813 bound to server default
Listening on proxy address * port 48178
Listening on proxy address :: port 38713
Ready to process requests

If you see Ready to process requests  , than all good to Go, Else it will show you the particular errors and lines that you must FIX in order to proceed further.

Moving forward, Open second Terminal window, & try below cmd’s to test the user credentials/authentication

Test#1 using RADCLIENT tool with particular calling MAC address

echo "User-Name=zaib,User-Password=zaib,Calling-Station-Id=00:0C:29:71:60:DA" | radclient -s localhost:1812 auth testing123


Sent Access-Request Id 38 from to length 63
Received Access-Accept Id 38 from to length 26
Packet summary:
Accepted : 1
Rejected : 0
Lost : 0
Passed filter : 1
Failed filter : 0

Test#2 using RADTEST tool

radtest zaib zaib localhost 1812 testing123


Sent Access-Request Id 26 from to length 74
User-Name = "zaib"
User-Password = "zaib"
NAS-IP-Address =
NAS-Port = 1812
Message-Authenticator = 0x00
Cleartext-Password = "zaib"
Received Access-Accept Id 26 from to length 26
Session-Timeout = 289854175

Freeradius Debug Window:

Ready to process requests
(0) Received Access-Request Id 57 from to length 63
(0) User-Name = "zaib"
(0) User-Password = "zaib"
(0) Calling-Station-Id = "00:0C:29:71:60:DA"
(0) # Executing section authorize from file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default
(0) authorize {
(0) [preprocess] = ok
(0) [chap] = noop
(0) [mschap] = noop
(0) suffix: Checking for suffix after "@"
(0) suffix: No '@' in User-Name = "zaib", looking up realm NULL
(0) suffix: No such realm "NULL"
(0) [suffix] = noop
(0) [files] = noop
(0) sql: EXPAND %{User-Name}
(0) sql: --> zaib
(0) sql: SQL-User-Name set to 'zaib'
rlm_sql (sql): Reserved connection (1)
(0) sql: EXPAND SELECT id, username, attribute, value, op FROM radcheck WHERE username = '%{SQL-User-Name}' ORDER BY id
(0) sql: --> SELECT id, username, attribute, value, op FROM radcheck WHERE username = 'zaib' ORDER BY id
(0) sql: Executing select query: SELECT id, username, attribute, value, op FROM radcheck WHERE username = 'zaib' ORDER BY id
(0) sql: User found in radcheck table
(0) sql: Conditional check items matched, merging assignment check items
(0) sql: Cleartext-Password := "zaib"
(0) sql: Expiration := "Jan 13 2029 11:00:00 PKT"
(0) sql: Simultaneous-Use := 1
(0) sql: Calling-Station-Id := "00:0C:29:71:60:DA"
(0) sql: EXPAND SELECT id, username, attribute, value, op FROM radreply WHERE username = '%{SQL-User-Name}' ORDER BY id
(0) sql: --> SELECT id, username, attribute, value, op FROM radreply WHERE username = 'zaib' ORDER BY id
(0) sql: Executing select query: SELECT id, username, attribute, value, op FROM radreply WHERE username = 'zaib' ORDER BY id
(0) sql: User found in radreply table, merging reply items
(0) sql: Mikrotik-Rate-Limit == "1024k/1024k"
rlm_sql (sql): Reserved connection (2)
rlm_sql (sql): Released connection (2)
Need 5 more connections to reach 10 spares
rlm_sql (sql): Opening additional connection (6), 1 of 26 pending slots used
rlm_sql_mysql: Starting connect to MySQL server
rlm_sql_mysql: Connected to database 'radius' on Localhost via UNIX socket, server version 5.7.27-0ubuntu0.18.04.1, protocol version 10
(0) sql: EXPAND SELECT groupname FROM radusergroup WHERE username = '%{SQL-User-Name}' ORDER BY priority
(0) sql: --> SELECT groupname FROM radusergroup WHERE username = 'zaib' ORDER BY priority
(0) sql: Executing select query: SELECT groupname FROM radusergroup WHERE username = 'zaib' ORDER BY priority
(0) sql: User not found in any groups
rlm_sql (sql): Released connection (1)
(0) [sql] = ok
(0) if (notfound){
(0) if (notfound) -> FALSE
(0) expiration: Account will expire at 'Jan 13 2029 11:00:00 PKT'
(0) [expiration] = ok
(0) if (userlock){
(0) if (userlock) -> FALSE
(0) [pap] = updated
(0) if (&request:Calling-Station-Id != &control:Calling-Station-Id) {
(0) if (&request:Calling-Station-Id != &control:Calling-Station-Id) -> FALSE
(0) } # authorize = updated
(0) Found Auth-Type = PAP
(0) # Executing group from file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default
(0) Auth-Type PAP {
(0) pap: Login attempt with password
(0) pap: Comparing with "known good" Cleartext-Password
(0) pap: User authenticated successfully
(0) [pap] = ok
(0) } # Auth-Type PAP = ok
(0) # Executing section session from file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default
(0) session {
(0) sql: EXPAND %{User-Name}
(0) sql: --> zaib
(0) sql: SQL-User-Name set to 'zaib'
rlm_sql (sql): Reserved connection (3)
(0) sql: EXPAND SELECT COUNT(*) FROM radacct WHERE username = '%{SQL-User-Name}' AND acctstoptime IS NULL
(0) sql: --> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM radacct WHERE username = 'zaib' AND acctstoptime IS NULL
(0) sql: Executing select query: SELECT COUNT(*) FROM radacct WHERE username = 'zaib' AND acctstoptime IS NULL
rlm_sql (sql): Released connection (3)
(0) [sql] = ok
(0) } # session = ok
(0) # Executing section post-auth from file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default
(0) post-auth {
(0) if (session-state:User-Name && reply:User-Name && request:User-Name && (reply:User-Name == request:User-Name)) {
(0) if (session-state:User-Name && reply:User-Name && request:User-Name && (reply:User-Name == request:User-Name)) -> FALSE
(0) update {
(0) No attributes updated for RHS &session-state:
(0) } # update = noop
(0) sql: EXPAND .query
(0) sql: --> .query
(0) sql: Using query template 'query'
rlm_sql (sql): Reserved connection (4)
(0) sql: EXPAND %{User-Name}
(0) sql: --> zaib
(0) sql: SQL-User-Name set to 'zaib'
(0) sql: EXPAND INSERT INTO radpostauth (username, pass, reply, reply_msg, authdate, nasipaddress, mac) VALUES ( '%{SQL-User-Name}', '%{%{User-Password}:-%{Chap-Password}}', '%{reply:Packet-Type}', '%{reply:Reply-Message}', '%S', '%{NAS-IP-Address}', '%{Calling-Station-Id}')
(0) sql: --> INSERT INTO radpostauth (username, pass, reply, reply_msg, authdate, nasipaddress, mac) VALUES ( 'zaib', 'zaib', 'Access-Accept', '', '2019-11-07 15:58:05', '', '00:0C:29:71:60:DA')
(0) sql: Executing query: INSERT INTO radpostauth (username, pass, reply, reply_msg, authdate, nasipaddress, mac) VALUES ( 'zaib', 'zaib', 'Access-Accept', '', '2019-11-07 15:58:05', '', '00:0C:29:71:60:DA')
(0) sql: SQL query returned: success
(0) sql: 1 record(s) updated
rlm_sql (sql): Released connection (4)
(0) [sql] = ok
(0) [exec] = noop
(0) } # post-auth = ok
(0) Sent Access-Accept Id 57 from to length 0
(0) Session-Timeout = 289854115
(0) Finished request
Waking up in 4.9 seconds.
(0) Cleaning up request packet ID 57 with timestamp +2
Ready to process requests

Above output shows OK status. You can inspect any errors in the freeradius config or with the user credentials here like, invalid mac, expiratione etc

Workaround to open existing session in RADACCT


When there is an disconnection between NAS & RADIUS, following situation will be observed


User session will be online on NAS, but NAS will not send interim updates to the Radius because communication between NAS/Radius is lost


Radius will not receive any interim updates from the NAS & his session will keep alive (acctstoptime IS NULL), But for some local requirements we scheduled a bash script which checks stale session checking last acct update time . Example if the radius doesn’t receives interim update for 10 minutes, it will close this user session in radacct table by setting acctstoptime to current date/time.

Now when the connectivity restore between the NAS & Radius, and since NAS has this user online, it will send Interim Update to the radius, BUT our radius have closed this session already earlier (via bash script), therefore this update packet will only update the old entry using unique acct ID, but acctstoptime will not be set to NULL.

This will create confusion for frontend, because when you will search online users by searching entries whose acctstoptime is NULL. this session will not appear which will create FALSE assumption on your frontend that this user is offline whereas this user is actually online in NAS.

To settle this , I made some dirty workaround by poking in freeradius SQL queries.conf  file. I am not aware if this trick is is already being used or not,but its working fine on my end.

Add below code

acctstoptime = NULL, \

in queries.conf

Edit file by

nano /etc/freeradius/mods-config/sql/main/mysql/queries.conf
interim-update {
# Update an existing session and calculate the interval
# between the last data we received for the session and this
# update. This can be used to find stale sessions.
query = "\
UPDATE ${....acct_table1} \
acctupdatetime = (@acctupdatetime_old:=acctupdatetime), \
acctupdatetime = FROM_UNIXTIME(\
%{integer:Event-Timestamp}), \
acctinterval = %{integer:Event-Timestamp} - \
UNIX_TIMESTAMP(@acctupdatetime_old), \
acctstoptime = NULL, \
framedipaddress = '%{Framed-IP-Address}', \
framedipv6address = '%{Framed-IPv6-Address}', \
framedipv6prefix = '%{Framed-IPv6-Prefix}', \
framedinterfaceid = '%{Framed-Interface-Id}', \
delegatedipv6prefix = '%{Delegated-IPv6-Prefix}', \
acctsessiontime = %{%{Acct-Session-Time}:-NULL}, \
acctinputoctets = '%{%{Acct-Input-Gigawords}:-0}' \
<< 32 | '%{%{Acct-Input-Octets}:-0}', \
acctoutputoctets = '%{%{Acct-Output-Gigawords}:-0}' \
<< 32 | '%{%{Acct-Output-Octets}:-0}' \
WHERE AcctUniqueId = '%{Acct-Unique-Session-Id}'"

& as always reload freeradius

service freeradius reload

Prevent Multiple User login [ Simultaneous Login :=1 ]

To prevent multiple login for same user , we have to first enable SQL base session logging , so that our control can check the session details for already logged in user

Edit file

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

& then uncomment sql under session { section

# Session database, used for checking Simultaneous-Use. Either the radutmp
# or rlm_sql module can handle this.
# The rlm_sql module is *much* faster
session {

MAC binding for particular user

In FR 3, chdckval module have been removed (which was used in Fr2 for mac control).

First add the Calling-Station-Id in RADCHECK table for that user.

Now we need to add UNLAG query in FR sites-enabled DEFAULT config to trigger MAC address control upon receivng authentication request (if control for that user is defined in RADCHECK table)

edit file

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

Under authorize { section, add below code

if (&request:Calling-Station-Id != &control:Calling-Station-Id) {
update reply {
Reply-Message := "Incorrect Mac"

After every change in config files, reload freeradius by

service freeradius reload

Now you can simulate test using below CMD

RADCLIENT test with particular calling MAC address

# example with Password attribute, you can also try User-Password
echo "User-Name = user01, Password = pass01, Calling-Station-Id = 98-4B-4A-F5-BF-40" | radclient -s localhost:1812 auth testing123
#Another example with cleartext-password attribute
echo "User-Name = user01, ClearText-Password = passwd, Calling-Station-Id = 00:50:56:91:D5:16" | radclient -s localhost:1812 auth testing123

Note: If there is no Calling-Station-ID defined in RADCHECK , test will success and in FREERADIUS Debug log, you will see line that failed to evaluate control. but user will be able to connect if no mac defined in radcheck.

Modifying RADPOSTAUTH section for recording user login attempts in sql table

To record all users login attempts with our customized RADPOSTAUTH table, we can following

First edit queries.conf in /etc/freeradius/mods-config/sql/main/mysql

nano /etc/freeradius/mods-config/sql/main/mysql/queries.conf

Goto End & search for section (usually its in the last)

# Authentication Logging Queries
# postauth_query - Insert some info after authentication

Delete existing query & use this one

query = "\
INSERT INTO ${..postauth_table} \
(username, pass, reply, reply_msg, authdate, nasipaddress, mac) \
'%{SQL-User-Name}', \
'%{%{User-Password}:-%{Chap-Password}}', \
'%{reply:Packet-Type}', \
'%{reply:Reply-Message}', \
'%S', \
'%{NAS-IP-Address}', \

Save and Exit.

Modify RADPOSTAUTH table

Now modify the RADPOSTAUTH table in radius DB so that reply messages can be stored here in the way want it to be

mysql -uroot -pzaib1234
use radius;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `radpostauth`;
CREATE TABLE `radpostauth` ( `id` int(11) NOT NULL, `username` varchar(64) NOT NULL DEFAULT '', `pass` varchar(64) NOT NULL DEFAULT '', `reply` varchar(256) NOT NULL DEFAULT '', `reply_msg` varchar(256) DEFAULT NULL, `authdate` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, `nasipaddress` varchar(100) DEFAULT NULL, `mac` text ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
ALTER TABLE `radpostauth` ADD PRIMARY KEY (`id`), ADD KEY `username` (`username`(32));

As always reload freeradius service after any modification in the configuration files using

service freeradius reload

Try to auth any user and then look into RADPOSTAUTH table & you will see entries like

mysql> select * from radpostauth;
| id | username | pass | reply | reply_msg | authdate | nasipaddress | mac |
| 14 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:21:37 | | 00:0C:29:35:F8:2F |
| 15 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:21:50 | | 00:0C:29:35:F8:21 |
| 16 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | | 2019-11-05 19:22:12 | | 00:0C:29:35:F8:21 |
| 17 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-05 19:23:51 | | 00:0C:29:35:F8:21 |
| 18 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-05 19:23:57 | | 00:0C:29:35:F8:2F |
| 19 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:24:14 | | 11:11:11:11:11:11 |
| 20 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-05 19:24:21 | | 00:0C:29:35:F8:2F |
| 21 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-05 19:25:23 | | 00:0C:29:35:F8:2F |
| 22 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:25:29 | | 11:11:11:11:11:11 |
| 23 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | Your account has expired=2C zaib | 2019-11-05 19:25:44 | | 11:11:11:11:11:11 |
| 24 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | Account Expired | 2019-11-05 19:26:16 | | 11:11:11:11:11:11 |
| 25 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | Account Expired | 2019-11-05 19:26:25 | | |
| 26 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | Account Expired | 2019-11-05 19:27:22 | | |
| 27 | zaib | zaib1 | Access-Reject | Account Expired | 2019-11-05 19:27:41 | | |
| 28 | zaib1 | zaib | Access-Reject | | 2019-11-05 19:27:55 | | |
| 29 | zaib1 | zaib | Access-Reject | Username not found | 2019-11-05 19:29:04 | | |
| 30 | zaib | zaib1 | Access-Reject | Account Expired | 2019-11-05 19:29:12 | | |
| 31 | zaib | zaib1 | Access-Reject | Account Expired | 2019-11-05 19:30:28 | | |
| 32 | zaib | zaib1 | Access-Reject | Wrong Password | 2019-11-05 19:30:46 | | |
| 33 | zaib1 | zaib | Access-Reject | Username not found | 2019-11-05 19:30:54 | | |
| 34 | zaib1 | zaib | Access-Reject | Username not found | 2019-11-05 19:32:45 | | |
| 35 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:32:51 | | |
| 36 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:33:01 | | |
| 37 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | You are already logged in - access denied | 2019-11-05 19:33:57 | | |
| 38 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:35:21 | | |
| 39 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:35:28 | | 11:11:11:11:11:11 |
| 40 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:35:51 | | |
| 41 | zaib | | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-05 19:37:23 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 42 | zaib | | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-05 19:37:38 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 43 | zaib | | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-05 19:39:13 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 44 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | You are already logged in - access denied | 2019-11-06 08:37:04 | | |
| 45 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-06 08:37:24 | | |
| 46 | zaib | | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-07 07:56:07 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 47 | zaib | | Access-Reject | You are already logged in - access denied | 2019-11-07 07:57:03 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 48 | zaib | | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-07 07:57:18 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 49 | zaib@zaib | | Access-Reject | Wrong Password | 2019-11-07 07:57:23 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 50 | zaib@zaib | | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-07 08:00:37 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 51 | zaib | zaib | Access-Reject | Incorrect Mac | 2019-11-07 15:54:53 | | 11:11:11:11:11:11 |
| 52 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-07 15:56:12 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |
| 53 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-07 15:57:05 | | |
| 54 | zaib | zaib | Access-Accept | | 2019-11-07 15:58:05 | | 00:0C:29:71:60:DA |

Unable to login with username like zaib@zaib

If you are unable to login with username like z@ib@zaib , then disable the filter_username module under authorize { section

edit file

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

Navigate to authorize { section, & comment the filter_username

authorize {
# Take a User-Name, and perform some checks on it, for spaces and other
# invalid characters. If the User-Name appears invalid, reject the
# request.
# See policy.d/filter for the definition of the filter_username policy.

# filter_username

Mikrotik-Rate-Limit not working with FR 3
(Updated on 9-NOV-2019)

Today I encountered issue at local network, where radius was not sending the Mikrotik-Rate-Limit syntax to the NAS. After doing some troubleshooting it came to my knowledge that you have to change op value from == to := , Example

Mikrotik-Rate-Limit := 1024k/1024k

Trimming RADACCT table to make it SLIM & blazing Responsive


Over the period of time, radacct table will grow enormously. This can slow down many queries , therefore its a good idea to move all closed session entries (NOT NULL) to another table like radacct_archive. I created following bash script which helped me to sort many issues.

Note: Make sure to change credentials section

mkdir /temp
touch /temp/
chmod +x /temp/
nano /temp/

& copy paste following

#!/usr/bin/env bash
#set -x
logger radacct_trim script started $DATE
CMD="mysql -u$SQLUSER --skip-column-names -s -e"
# This is one time step.
echo "
Script Started @ $DATE
echo "- Step 1 : Checking for DB: $DB / TABLE: $TBL_ARCH ..."
DBCHK=`mysqlshow --user=$SQLUSER $DB | grep -v Wildcard | grep -o $DB`
if [ "$DBCHK" == "$DB" ]; then
echo " > $DB DB found"
echo " > $DB not found. Creating now ..."
$CMD "create database if not exists $DB;"
if [[ $(mysql -u$SQLUSER -e "$TBL_ARCH_EXISTS" $DB) ]]
echo " > $TBL_ARCH TABLE found IN DB: $DB"
echo " > $TBL_ARCH TABLE not found IN DB: $DB / Creating now ..."
$CMD "use $DB; create table if not exists $TBL_ARCH LIKE radacct;"

# Start Action: copy data from radacct to new db/archive table
NOTULL_COUNT=`$CMD "use $DB; select count(*) from radacct WHERE acctstoptime is not null;"`
echo "- Step 2 : Found $NOTULL_COUNT records in radacct table , Now copying $NOTULL_COUNT records to $TBL_ARCH table ..."
$CMD "use $DB; INSERT IGNORE INTO $TBL_ARCH SELECT * FROM radacct WHERE acctstoptime is not null;"
echo "- Step 3 : Deleting $NOTULL_COUNT records old data from radacct table (which have acctstoptime NOT NULL) ..."
# --- Now Delete data from CURRENT RADACCT table so that it should remain fit and smart ins size
$CMD "use $DB; DELETE FROM radacct WHERE acctstoptime is not null;"
echo "- Step 4 : Copying old data from $TBL_ARCH older then $MONTHS months ..."
# --- Now Delete data from RADACCT_ARCHIVE table so that it should not grow either more than we required i.e 1 Year - one year archived data is enough IMO
logger radacct_trim script ended with $NOTULL_COUNT records processed for trimming @ $DATE
echo "
radacct_trim script ended with $NOTULL_COUNT records processed for trimming @ $DATE"

Schedule this BASH script to run every minute (or as per required)

1 * * * * /temp/

Check for STALE Sessions in RADACCT [for FR ver3 in particular]

This bash script will close sessions in RADACCT whose interim updates have not received in last XX minutes. You can schedule it to run every minute or as required

#!/usr/bin/env bash
#set -x
#trap "set +x; set -x" DEBUG
# BASH base script to close STALE sessions from freeradius, whose accounting is not updated in last X minutes in RADACCT table
# By Syed Jahanzaib
# CREATED on : 25-July-2018
# Local Variables

# Mysql credentials
CMD="mysql -u$SQLID --skip-column-names -s -e"
#Table which contain main users information
#Rad user group in which we will update user profile like from 1mb to expired or likewise
# Date Time Variables
DATE=$(date +%d-%m-%Y)
DT_HMS=$(date +'%H:%M:%S')
CURR_HOUR=$(date +%H)
TODAY=$(date +"%Y-%m-%d")
WEEK=`date -d "-1000 days" '+%Y-%m-%d'`
H=$(date +'%-H')

#Check and close session for staleness
$CMD "use $DB; select username,radacctid,nasipaddress from radacct WHERE acctstoptime IS NULL AND acctupdatetime  $STALE_USR_LIST
# IF no user found , show error and exit - zaib
CHK=`wc -m $STALE_USR_LIST | awk {'print $1}'`
if [ "$CHK" -eq 0 ]
echo "No stall sesion found (which accounting session have not updated in last $INTERVAL minutes) , exiting ..."
exit 1
$CMD "use $DB; UPDATE radacct SET acctstoptime = NOW(), acctterminatecause = 'Clear-Stale-Session' WHERE acctstoptime IS NULL AND acctupdatetime /dev/null 2>&1

WordPress is not letting pasting of code. look for this line

wp post problem.PNG


following are some mySQL tuning made according to the hardware. These are just my assumptions that this setting will work fine. However you may tune your setup according to your hardware. Install & run MYSQLTUNER tool which will better guide you as per the actual hardware/software scneario.


socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
nice = 0
user = mysql
pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/
socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
port = 3306
basedir = /usr
datadir = /var/lib/mysql
tmpdir = /tmp
lc-messages-dir = /usr/share/mysql
bind-address =
key_buffer_size = 4G
thread_stack = 192K
thread_cache_size = 8
myisam-recover-options = BACKUP
max_connections = 2000
table_open_cache = 15000
query_cache_limit = 200M
query_cache_size = 0
query_cache_type = 0
#log_error = /var/log/mysql/error.log
expire_logs_days = 10
max_binlog_size = 100M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 22G
innodb_log_file_size = 11G
innodb_buffer_pool_instances = 22

MYSQLTUNER to see mySQL performance

It is good idea to install mysqltuner

apt-get install mysqltuner

Let your mysql Run for 1-2 days, then run this tool



mysql -uroot -pzaib1234
use radius;


*************************** 2. row ***************************
Name: radacct
Engine: InnoDB
Version: 10
Row_format: Dynamic
Rows: 1
Avg_row_length: 16384
Data_length: 16384
Max_data_length: 0
Index_length: 212992
Data_free: 0
Auto_increment: 2323234
Create_time: 2019-11-05 19:06:21
Update_time: 2019-11-07 10:27:08
Check_time: NULL
Collation: latin1_swedish_ci
Checksum: NULL

In above OUTPUT, You can see the type, with 5.5+ its generally innodb


Monitor Disk Read Write

To monitor all disks read/write speed install this tool

apt-get install -y iotop

Run it using below cmd

iotop -o

HTOP – Monitor ALL Processes / CPU Cores Usage Monitor

install this

apt-get install -y htop


Doing Stress Test on Radius using BASH scripts

stress test on fr 3

FREERADIUS Stress Test Using BASH script – Zaib


Installing Freeradius latest version 3.xx.xx on Ubuntu 16.4 Server

echo "deb xenial
main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
apt-get update
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver --recv-key 0x41382202
sudo apt-get update
apt-get -y install freeradius freeradius-mysql freeradius-utils

Adding DICTIONARY in Freeradius (vBNG)

To add additional/3rd party dictionaries in freeradius, first copy the dictionary file in /usr/share/freeradius folder.

then edit the file DICTIONARY file in /usr/share/freeradius/dictionary

nano /usr/share/freeradius/dictionary

& add the dictionary file location in the end of this file

Example File:

ZAIB #### 15-FEB-2021
#### Add VBNG NETELASTIC support in Freeradius as well
$INCLUDE dictionary.netelastic-2019q3

& reload the freeradius service

service freeradius reload
service freeradius restart

Syed Jahanzaib

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