Syed Jahanzaib Personal Blog to Share Knowledge !

March 11, 2016

Mikrotik with Freeradius/mySQL # Part-1

Filed under: freeradius — Tags: , , , , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 3:42 PM

fre


FREERADIUS WITH MIKROTIK – Part #1 > YOU ARE HERE

FREERADIUS WITH MIKROTIK – Part #2 >

FREERADIUS WITH MIKROTIK – Part #3


Personnel Note:

This is another post about freeradius. My aim is to let people know that creating your own Radius Billing system is not ROCKET SCIENCE as some PRO in the industry try to pose. You can do it as well, the only thing required is the ultimate passion to achieve the goal. And with the right search, reading, understanding logic’s, you can do all on your own. I strongly encourage to read the FR mailing list and Google


Make your own Billing system in Linux with Freeradius 2.1.10 / MySQL 5.5.47
# Part-1

[This Guide will be updated with many further supporting posts)

The aim of writing this post was that there are number of radius products available on the internet with lots of features, each have some unique features. But this is also true that none of them is 100% perfect for every type of ISP. The reason is that every ISP/Network have different sort of local requirements and billing mode. If you ahve searched on google you will find that there are tons of guides for freeradius implementation, but most of them have either incomplete data , or difficult explanation, or does not meet the practical requirements of Desi ISP. Thats why I started this guide so that info that is not common on the net can be shared here. plus most important you can learn on your own using this baby step.

In this post I have made some quick guide to install a very basic level of billing system by using Freeradius/mysql on UBUNTU 12.4 [32bit]. Mikrotik is being used as NAS to connect user and freeradius will be used for authentication/accounting billing system.

Quick Code to get started.

Radius IP = 101.11.11.245
Mikrotik IP = 101.11.11.255

Let’s Rock …


 

First Update Ubuntu (12.4  32bit) and install the required modules

# Update Ubuntu First
apt-get update

# Install Required pre requisites modules
apt-get -y install apache2 mc wget rcconf make gcc mysql-server mysql-client libmysqlclient15-dev libperl-dev curl php5 php5-mysql php5-cli php5-curl php5-mcrypt php5-gd php5-snmp php5-common php-pear php-db libapache2-mod-php5 php-mail

# Now install FreeRADIUS Version 2.1.10 package, default in Ubuntu 12.4 32bit
apt-get install freeradius freeradius-mysql freeradius-utils

This may take some moments as average of 100+MB will be downloaded from the net and will be installed automatically. Sit back and relax.

After update/installation of components done, Proceed to MYSQL configuration below ..,


 

MYSQL  CONFIGURATION:

 

Create Freeradius Database in MYSQL

Now create Freeradius Database in mySQL.

Login to mysql (use mysql root password that you entered in above steps)

mysql -uroot -pzaib1234
create database radius;
grant all on radius.* to radius@localhost identified by "zaib1234";

Import Freeradius Database Scheme in MYSQL ‘radius’ DB

Insert the freeradius database scheme using the following commands, Make sure to change the password ####


mysql -u root -pzaib1234 radius < /etc/freeradius/sql/mysql/schema.sql
mysql -u root -pzaib1234 radius < /etc/freeradius/sql/mysql/nas.sql

Create new user in MYSQL radius database (For Testing Users)

User id = zaib
Password = zaib
Rate-Limit = 1024k/1024k

mysql -uroot -pzaib1234
use radius;
INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES ( NULL , 'zaib', 'user-password', '==', 'zaib');
INSERT INTO radreply (username, attribute, op, value) VALUES ('zaib', 'Mikrotik-Rate-Limit', '=', '1024k/1024k');
exit

Note:
You can skip the Framed-IP-Address part or modify it as per required.


FREERADIUS CONFIGURATION:

SQL.CONF

Edit following file  /etc/freeradius/sql.conf

nano /etc/freeradius/sql.conf file

Change the password to zaib1234 (or whatever you set in mysql if required) and Uncomment the following

readclients = yes

So some portion of the file may look like following, after modifications

# Connection info:
server = "localhost"
#port = 3306
login = "radius"
password = "zaib1234"
readclients = yes

sql-mod

Save and Exit the file


/etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

Now edit the /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

Uncomment the sql option in the following sections

accounting

# See “Authorization Queries” in sql.conf

sql

session

# See “Authorization Queries” in sql.conf

sql

Post-Auth-Type

# See “Authorization Queries” in sql.conf

sql

[/sourcecode]

Save and Exit the file


RADIUSD.CONF

Now edit /etc/freeradius/radiusd.conf file

nano /etc/freeradius/radiusd.conf

#Uncomment the following option

$INCLUDE sql.conf

Save and exit the file


/etc/freeradius/sites-available/default

Last but no least , edit /etc/freeradius/sites-available/default

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-available/default

Search for LINE

#  See “Authorization Queries” in sql.conf

and UN-COMMENT the SQL word below it.

Example After modification

#  See “Authorization Queries” in sql.conf

sql

Save and exit.


ADDING ‘NAS’ [Mikrotik] in CLIENTS.CONF

 

To accept connectivity of Mikrotik with the Freeradius, we need to add the mikrotik IP and shared secret in clients.conf

Edit  /etc/freeradius/clients.conf

nano /etc/freeradius/clients.conf

and add following lines at bottom

client 101.11.11.255 {
secret          = 12345
shortname       = Mikrotik

Note: Change the IP /Secret according to your Mikrotik Network Scheme.


 

TESTING USER AUTHENTICATION ON FREERADIUS:

Now stop the free radius server <pre>

/etc/init.d/freeradius stop

and start in DEBUG mode so that we can monitor for any errors etc

freeradius -X

Now OPEN another TERMINAL/CONSOLE window and issue following command to TEST USER AUTHENTICATION

radtest zaib zaib localhost 1812 testing123

and you should ACCESS-ACCEPT MESSAGE as below …

root@ubuntu:~#  radtest zaib zaib localhost 1812 testing123

Sending Access-Request of id 38 to 127.0.0.1 port 1812
User-Name = "zaib"
User-Password = "zaib"
NAS-IP-Address = 101.11.11.245
NAS-Port = 1812
rad_recv: Access-Accept packet from host 127.0.0.1 port 1812, id=38, length=39
Mikrotik-Rate-Limit = "1024k/1024k"

mt

 

:~) Alhamdolillah


 

MIKROTIK SECTION:

I assumed you already have pppoe server configured and running.

Add Radius Entry as showed in the images below …

nas1

nas2


 

TEST FROM CLIENT WINDOWS PC:

Create pppoe dialer at client end, and test the user ID created in earlier steps.

c1

Once it will be connected, you can see entries in Mikrotik LOG / Active Users Session.
As showed in the image below …

ml1

and dynamic queue of 1mb will also be created (that we added in attributes section in radius/mysql)

queue


DISCONNECT Active USER : COMMAND FROM RADIUS

If you want to disconnect a single active connected user , use following command (many other methods available as well)

 

echo user-name=zaib | radclient -x 101.11.11.255:1700 disconnect 12345

Result

discon command

dc

disconnect user


Preventing Simultaneous Use by using simultaneous-Use attribute

To LIMIT USER SIMULTANEOUS SESSION:

INSERT INTO `radcheck` (`id` ,`username` ,`attribute` ,`op` ,`value` )
VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'MD5-Password', ':=', MD5( 'zaib' ) ),
(NULL , 'zaib', 'Simultaneous-Use', ':=', '1');

Result of above attributes:

already


Add Calling-Station-Id attribute to restrict mac CALLED ID

If we want to restrict bind user name with specific mac address, first edit

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

and un comment following attribute “checkval“, Example is below …

checkvalsave and restart radius.

Now login to mysql , select radius database, and use below command to add user, with mac address.

INSERT INTO `radius`.`radcheck` (`id` ,`username` ,`attribute` ,`op` ,`value`)
VALUES (
NULL , 'zaib', 'Calling-Station-Id', ':=', '12:34:56:78:70:00'
);

If user uses different station to connect with this ID he will be rejected as showed in the image below …

phpadmin

 

reject-mac-wrong

 


Add Static IP Address and Pool in radreply group.

To Assign user FIX IP Address, use following …

INSERT INTO radreply ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Framed-IP-Address', '=', '1.2.3.4');

To Assign user IP from POOL, use following …

INSERT INTO radreply ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Framed-Pool', '=', '512k-pool');

 


Adding Expiration Date for user

If you want to Expire the Account after XX days, you can use following

INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Expiration', '=', '13 Mar 2016');

In above Example User will expires on 13th March, 2016 at 00:00 [Midnight].

If you want to EXPIRE user at some other specific Time, use following format in time

INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Expiration', '=', '13 Mar 2016 08:00');

ZAIB 🙂 GOT IT


Limit User Total Online time (Access by Period) Started from first login

If you want to start user online time (like in hours) but it should be calculated from first access, then use following.

edit the file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

and add following under “authorize { section

accessperiod

so that it may look like below …

default

now edit file /etc/freeradius/modules/sqlcounter_expire_on_login

nano /etc/freeradius/modules/sqlcounter_expire_on_login

and add following

sqlcounter accessperiod {
counter-name = Max-Access-Period-Time
check-name = Access-Period
sqlmod-inst = sql
key = User-Name
reset = never
query = "SELECT IF(COUNT(radacctid>=1),(UNIX_TIMESTAMP() - IFNULL(UNIX_TIMESTAMP(AcctStartTime),0)),0) FROM radacct WHERE UserName = '%{%k}' AND AcctSessionTime >= 1 ORDER BY AcctStartTime LIMIT 1"
}

now add user attribute in radchceck table (Following is 1 hour Uptime limit example, and it will start after first login)

INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Access-Period', '=', '3600');

Once the time period is over, user will be disconnected.


 

Limit User Total Online time , Example one hour, which can be used in parts as well.

If we want to allow user one hour which user can use in parts as well, like ten minutes now, then next day he can use rest of his available time.  Use following

edit the file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

and add following under “authorize { section

Max-All-Session

now edit file /etc/freeradius/modules/sqlcounter_expire_on_login

nano /etc/freeradius/modules/sqlcounter_expire_on_login

and add following

sqlcounter timelimit {
counter-name = Max-All-Session-Time
check-name = Max-All-Session
sqlmod-inst = sql
key = User-Name
reset = never
query = “SELECT SUM(AcctSessionTime) FROM radacct where UserName=’%{%k}'”
}

Save and Exit.

Now add user attribute in radchceck table (Following is 1 hour Uptime limit example, which can be used in parts as well no first login applied here)

INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Max-All-Session', '=', '3600');

QUOTA LIMIT FOR USER with CUSTOM MEANINGFUL REJECT REPLY MESSAGE

To limit user data volume limit (either daily, weekly or monthly) use below code.

edit the file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

and add following under “authorize { section

totalbytecounter{
reject = 1
}
if(reject){
update reply {
Reply-Message := "ZAIB-RADIUS-REPLY - You have reached your bandwidth limit"
}
reject
}

now edit file /etc/freeradius/modules/sqlcounter_expire_on_login

nano /etc/freeradius/modules/sqlcounter_expire_on_login

and add following

sqlcounter totalbytecounter {
                counter-name = Mikrotik-Total-Limit
                check-name = Mikrotik-Total-Limit
                reply-name = Mikrotik-Total-Limit
                sqlmod-inst = sql
                key = User-Name
                reset = never
                query = "SELECT ((SUM(AcctInputOctets)+SUM(AcctOutputOctets))) FROM radacct WHERE UserName='%{%k}'"
}

Save and Exit.

Now add user attribute in radchceck table (Following is 1 MB total data limit example, which can be used in parts as well )

Note: Value is in bytes, so use it accordingly

INSERT INTO radcheck ( id , UserName , Attribute , op , Value ) VALUES (NULL , 'zaib', 'Mikrotik-Total-Limit', '=', '1000000');

Once the user quota over, he will get access deny message, and in radius log, you can see following 🙂

radreply

Note:

There is a problem with above attribute. Radius will not AUTO disconnect user once he reaches his limit. he will continue to use his account. he will only be denied further login on his next login attempt.

Following is an workaround for it.

Make the following bash script. It will check for online users, and will check if those users have quota limit using ‘Mikrotik-Total-Limit’ attribute. Then it will check there usage against quota limit. If it will found above quota, it will simply disconnect users, else ignore. You can add this script in crontab to run every X minutes.


#!/bin/bash
#set -x
# HEADER -----------
# SCRIPT to fetch data of active radius users into file, then check there quota limit against there usage.
# if quota is over , disconnect them.
# Syed Jahanzaib / aacable@hotmail.com / https://aacable.wordpress.com
# 17-MAR-2016

# Setting FILE Variables
TMPFILE="/tmp/activeusers"
FINALFILE="/tmp/finalfile"

# Make list of ONLINE USERS using radwho command, very handy 🙂
radwho  | awk '{print $2}' | sed '1d' > $TMPFILE
# if you fail to configure radwho, then use following
# mysql -uroot -pSQLPASS --skip-column-names -e "use radius; SELECT username FROM radacct WHERE acctstoptime IS NULL;" | cut -f1 -d/ 

# Mikrotik NAS Details
NAS="101.11.11.255"
NASPORT="1700"
SECRET="12345"
CURDATE=`date`

# MYSQL user credentials
SQLUSER="root"
SQLPASS="zaib1234"

# Apply Formula to get QUOTA limit data for each user in $FINALFILE (EXCLUDING USER WHO DONT HAVE ANY QUOTA LIMIT USING MIKROTIK-TOTAL-LIMIT ATTRIBUTE)
num=0
cat $TMPFILE | while read users
do
num=$[$num+1]
ACTIVEID=`echo $users | awk '{print $1}'`
mysql -u$SQLUSER -p$SQLPASS --skip-column-names -e "use radius; SELECT username,value FROM radcheck WHERE attribute='Mikrotik-Total-Limit' AND username='$ACTIVEID';" > $FINALFILE
done


# Apply Formula to get username and QUOTA LIMIT from $FINALFILE and check there usage againts assigned quota
num=0
cat $FINALFILE | while read users
do
num=$[$num+1]
username=`echo $users | awk '{print $1}'`
QLIMIT=`echo $users | awk '{print $2}'`
QUSED=`mysql -u$SQLUSER -p$SQLPASS --skip-column-names -e "use radius; SELECT ((SUM(AcctInputOctets)+SUM(AcctOutputOctets))) FROM radacct WHERE UserName='$username'"`

# PRINT GENERAL INFO
echo "------ $CURDATE"
echo "$username QUOTA LIMIT= $QLIMIT"
echo "$username QUOTA USED= $QUSED"

# IF QUOTA IS ABOVE LIMIT, DISCONNECT USER USING RADCLIENT OR YOU CAN CHANGE THE USER SERVICE AS WELL 🙂 / zaib
if [ $QUSED -gt $QLIMIT ]
then
echo "QUOTA REACHED! Disconnecting $username from NAS $NAS"
echo user-name=$username | radclient -x $NAS:$NASPORT disconnect $SECRET

# ELSE JUST SHOW USER USED DATA WHICH IS IN LIMIT AT A MOMENT / zaib
else
echo "$username quote is under Limit"
echo "------"
fi
done

> $TMPFILE
> $FINALFILE
# SCRIPT END / Syed Jahanzaib

script-quota

Allah Shuker 🙂


BANDWIDTH CHANGE ON THE FLY – CHANGE OF AUTHORITY (COA) _for pppoe_

To change bandwidth speed for already connected users ON THE FLY , means without disconnecting him. Use following code. Its well tested with Freeradius 2.x and Mikrotik 6.34.2

Change the User Name / Rate Limit/ Mikrotik IP  and PORT/SECRET as per network.

echo User-Name := "zaib", Mikrotik-Rate-Limit = 512k/512k | radclient -x 101.11.11.255:1700 coa 12345

cOA


CHANGE BANDWIDTH PACKAGE TO LOWER AFTER DAILY QUOTA REACH

If you want to enforce FUP (fair usage policy) like if 1mb speed allowed user consumed X MB in a day, then his bandwidth package should DROP to lower speed, e.g: 512k for that day.

Add the COUNTER for daily counting

nano /etc/freeradius/modules/sqlcounter_expire_on_login


counter-name = Mikrotik-Total-Limit
check-name = Mikrotik-Total-Limit
reply-name = Mikrotik-Total-Limit
sqlmod-inst = sql
key = User-Name
reset = daily
query = "SELECT SUM(AcctInputOctets)+SUM(AcctOutputOctets) FROM radacct WHERE UserName='%{%k}'"
}

Now add the action for the above counter in sites-available (or enable) file

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-available/default


dailyquota {
reject = 1
}
if (reject) {
ok
update reply {
Mikrotik-Rate-Limit := "512k/512k"
Reply-Message := "You have reached your transfer limit. Limited bandwidth"
}
}


Get Online User Names

mysql -uroot -pSQLPASS --skip-column-names -e "use radius; SELECT username FROM radacct WHERE acctstoptime IS NULL;" | cut -f1 -d/ | sort | uniq -d

Regard’s

Syed Jahanzaib

 

 

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20 Comments »

  1. Nice..

    Sent from Yahoo Mail on Android

    Like

    Comment by surambili — March 11, 2016 @ 3:45 PM

  2. Always Awesome Post

    Like

    Comment by Abid Ali — March 11, 2016 @ 6:03 PM

  3. AOA Syed Jahanzaib bahi kesay hain ap sir mere pass ubuntu 12.04 LTS installed hai aik pc par us par lusca head install hai proxy cache server banaya howa hai kia main usi pc mein freeradius server bhi install kar k chala sakta hoo billing system k liye ya is k liye alag se pc lagana hoga ?

    Like

    Comment by Javed Hussain — March 12, 2016 @ 6:02 PM

  4. Thank you for you tutorial, it is very clearly and fully. I’m looking forward to the second part of your

    Like

    Comment by DP — March 25, 2016 @ 6:34 AM

  5. […] To Read Previous Post on Freeradius with Mikrotik, read this >  FR with Mikrotik / Part-1 […]

    Like

    Pingback by Mikrotik with Freeradius/mySQL – Change on the FLY with COA # Part-2 | Syed Jahanzaib Personal Blog to Share Knowledge ! — March 25, 2016 @ 4:58 PM

  6. Thats excellent document. Thanks for that. All exact steps worked for me also, however ‘Mikrotik-Rate-Limit’ is not giving expected result. Even if value set is 1024k user actually getting more than the set value.Is any other setting required here?

    Like

    Comment by HM — June 20, 2016 @ 4:34 PM

  7. Hi Syed. First of all, this three posts about freeradius saved my life. I’m trying to integrate freeradius with fortigate but your example was very helpful.

    I want to know if that I want to achieve it’s possible using freeradius, if you can help me.

    I’m using freeradius to validate users in captive portal to give to our clients free Internet access, but we ask to the clients an valid email. I developed a php page that send an email with a link and validate whan that user click the link.

    What I need to do with the freeradius server is give access to the clients when they complete the form to give them the opportunity to reach their mail service to click the link. If in the first hour they don’t confirm the email address i want to drop the connection.

    I planned to give to the users 15 days of internet access and if they don’t confirm the email in the first hour then drop the connection.

    But when the fortigate stablish the connectio takes the max connection time from radius and I don’t know how to modify to reduce it and send a Coa disconnect when the user reach the expire time. I don’t understand how radius trigger the coa messages. I saw your examples with the sql querys but I don’t know exactly how radius use it to triiger the disconnect message.

    Thanks in advance.

    Like

    Comment by miquelangeld — August 11, 2016 @ 2:57 PM

    • In fact I want to know if I change the user expiry time or max-time after the user logon, radius can check that new condition and be able to throw a Coa disconnect message to the fw.

      Like

      Comment by miquelangeld — August 11, 2016 @ 2:59 PM

  8. Thanks for your wonderful tutorials, would it be possible to shed some light on how to change user bandwidth automatically for night hours? e.g User zaib has 1Mbps for daytime and 2Mbps for night from 8pm to 6am? Thanks.

    Like

    Comment by Danish — August 29, 2016 @ 2:02 PM

  9. Syed Jahanzaib nice blog dear i have some query can u share your mail

    Like

    Comment by siddhartha — September 6, 2016 @ 6:15 PM

  10. Its very helpful.
    How can I reach you to get more help?

    Like

    Comment by Arif — September 27, 2016 @ 9:49 AM

  11. totalbytecounter is not working in both freeradius 2 and 3

    Liked by 1 person

    Comment by Imdadali — February 22, 2017 @ 6:32 PM

  12. centos 7 raddb totalbytecounter is not working radius 3

    Like

    Comment by denisshockwave — May 7, 2017 @ 2:28 AM

  13. thank you very much mr syed
    I want to integerate radius server with mysql for fortigate captive portal but is this tutorial which you integerated for mikrotik working with fortigate?

    Like

    Comment by starking123eng — May 22, 2017 @ 7:24 PM


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