Syed Jahanzaib Personal Blog to Share Knowledge !

March 27, 2018

Separating NATTING from ROUTING in Mikrotik

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Tags: — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 10:57 AM

nattinv and routing brother.jpg

mikrotik natting and routing

Disclaimer:

Every Network is different , so one solution cannot be applied to all. Therefore try to understand logic & create a solution that can match with your network scenario. Do not follow copy paste blindly.

I am NOT certified in anything Mikrotik/Cisco/Linux or Windows. However I have worked with some core networks and I read & research & try stuff all of the time. So I am not speaking/posting about stuff I am formerly trained in, I pretty much go with experience and what I have learned on my own. And , If I don’t know something then I read & learn all about it.

So , please don’t hold me/my-postings to be always 100 percent correct. I make mistakes just like everybody else. However – I do my best, learn from my mistakes and always try to help others

Regard’s
Syed Jahanzaib


Scenario:

We are using Mikrotik CCR as PPPOE NAS. Its a mix match router where large number of users received private ip (via pppoe connection) and other large portion receives IP from routed Public pool as well.

 


Problem:

When we have network outages like light failure in any particular area , in LOG we can see many PPPoE sessions disconnects with ‘peer not responding‘ messages. Exactly at this moments, our NAS CPU usage reaches to almost 100% , which results in router stops passing any kind of traffic. This can continue for a minute or so on.

As showed in the image below …

pppoe high cpu usage

If you are using Masquarade /NAT on the router, that is the problem. When using Masquarade, RouterOS has to do full connection tracking recalculation on EACH interface connect/disconnect. So if you have lots of PPP session connecting/disconnecting, connection tracking will constantly be recalculated which can cause high CPU usage. When interfaces connect/disconnect, in combination with NAT, it gives you high CPU usage.


Solution OR Possible Workaround :

  • If you have lots of PPP users along with some NATTING rules, Stop using Masquarade on same router that have a lot of dynamic interfaces. DO NOT use NAT on any router that have high number of connecting/disconnecting interfaces , like pppoe/vpn. Place an additional router connected with your PPPoE NAS, and route NAT there.
    Example: Add another router & perform all natting on that router by sending marked traffic from private ip series to that nat router. Setup routing between the PPPoE NAS and the NAT router.

Following is an working example.

1# Main CCR as PPPOE NAS

Interface Details:

  • ETHER1-LAN-: 192.168.88.1/24 < User facing interface where pppoe connections establishes
  • PUBLIC-WAN: 101.11.11.254 < WAN Interface for public IP routing
  • 2-NAT-ROUTER: 192.168.60.2/24  < interface connected with another CCR for natting

PPPoE User IP Pool > 172.16.0.1-172.16.0.255
UPSTREAM ISP Core Router Gateway IP >  101.11.11.36

2# Second CCR as NATTING Router

Interface Details:

  • 2-CCR-LAN: 192.168.60.1/24 < interface connected with main CCR [pppoe]
  • NATTING-WAN: 101.11.11.253 < Wan interface for natting users [traffic coming from main CCR for natting]
  • UPSTREAM ISP Core Router Gateway IP >  101.11.11.36

1# Main CCR Configuration for marking traffic

First we will mark traffic for private/public ip and will create routes for them as well.

/ip firewall mangle
add action=mark-routing chain=prerouting comment="Mark routing for Private IP users - zaib" disabled=no new-routing-mark=nat_routing passthrough=yes src-address=172.16.0.1-172.16.0.255
# We really dont need to mark traffic for public ip's because they will simply pass from our default route , but just for the sake of demonstration we are doing it.
add action=mark-routing chain=prerouting comment="Mark routing for PUBLIC IP users - zaib" disabled=no new-routing-mark=public_routing passthrough=yes src-address=1.1.1.1-1.1.1.255

Make sure you dont have any NAT rule in place. [in NAT section]

Now add Routes for marked traffic

/ip route
add comment="Route private ip traffic via second NAT router" disabled=no distance=1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=192.168.100.1 routing-mark=nat_routing scope=30 target-scope=10
add comment="Route public ip via this router default Gateway" disabled=no distance=1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=101.11.11.36 routing-mark=public_routing scope=30 target-scope=10
# DEFAULT Gateway for router's own traffic - zaib
add check-gateway=ping disabled=no distance=1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=101.11.11.36 scope=30 target-scope=10

Main CCR configuration part is done. Now moving towards second router where all NATTING will be done.

2# NATTING CCR Configuration for Masquerade

First create Default NAT rule [you may want to add ip series for security purposes.

/ip route
add comment="Default Router for NATTING router " disabled=no distance=1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=101.11.11.36 scope=30 target-scope=10
# Add reverse Route so that NATTING router can see the pppoe user directly
add disabled=no distance=1 dst-address=172.16.0.0/16 gateway=192.168.100.2 scope=30 target-scope=10

Testing !

  • Create TEST user in main CCR pppoe NAS,
  • Assign him private ip series profile,
  • Connect this TEST id from test PC & run TRACEROUTE

As showed in the image below …

ccr pppoe active private.JPG

.

nat-vs-route.JPG

RUN Torch on NATTING Router… as we can see that NATTING router is seeing pppoe users directly dueto reverse route in it.

NATTING CCR torch

.


 

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March 21, 2018

FUN with Mikrotik BRIDGE Series# Redirecting Traffic with Mikrotik Bridge – Part#2

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Tags: , , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 3:19 PM

link-redirection

  1. FUN with Mikrotik BRIDGE Series#1. Filter PPPoE Requests – Part#1
  2. FUN with Mikrotik BRIDGE Series# Redirecting Traffic with Mikrotik Bridge – Part#2 < You are Here

Disclaimer! This is important!

This post is related to a solution designed specific to cater some local manipulation requirement therefore you may continue to read it as an reference purpose only !

Every Network is different , so one solution cannot be applied to all. Therefore try to understand logic & create your own solution as per your network scenario. Just dont follow copy paste.

Please donot think that I am an expert on this stuff, I am NOT certified in anything including Mikrotik/Cisco/Linux or Windows. However I have worked with some core networks and I read , research & try stuff all of the time. So I am not speaking/posting about stuff I am formerly trained in, I pretty much go with experience and what I have learned on my own. And , If I don’t know something then I read & learn all about it.

So , please don’t hold me/my-postings to be always 100 percent correct. I am human being , I do make mistakes just like everybody else. However – I do my best, learn from my mistakes and always try to help others

Regard's
Syed Jahanzaib~

Scenario & Requirements:

We want to connect Network A & B using Mikrotik Bridge so that we can transparently intercept some traffic for control & redirection purposes. Example we want to make sure that any dns traffic that is traveling from A to B or B to A should be redirected to Mikrotik DNS for manipulation purposes. Also we would like to Block ICMP traffic travelling between both networks.

Solution:

We are using Mikrotik 2011UiAS-2HnD model.

Port-1 is connected with Network A and Port-2 is connected with Network B.

# BRIDGE Configuration

First we will do Bridge configuration & add ports in it,

/interface bridge
add name=bridge1

/interface bridge port
add bridge=bridge1 interface=ether1
add bridge=bridge1 interface=ether2
/interface bridge settings
set use-ip-firewall=yes

As showed in image below …

bridge rules

# DNS Configuration

Now setup Local DNS server

/ip dns
set allow-remote-requests=yes servers=8.8.8.8

# Now we will add static DNS entry for our requirements
/ip dns static
add address=1.2.3.4 name=aacable.wordpress.com

As showed in image below …

bridge dns add static.JPG

# DNS Redirection

Firewall NAT configuration to redirect DNS traffic travelling via BRIDGE interface to Mikrotik local DNS for manipulation purposes

/ip firewall nat
add action=redirect chain=dstnat comment="Redirect DNS Traffic via BRIDGE to local DNS - Zaib" dst-port=53 in-interface=bridge1 protocol=udp to-ports=53

# ICMP Filteration

Firewall Filter configuration to block ICMP protocol

/ip firewall filter
add action=reject chain=forward comment="Block ICMP Rule in BRIDGE - Zaib" in-interface=bridge1 protocol=icmp reject-with=icmp-network-unreachable

Client Testing

Result of testing NSLOOKUP from user PC. [Before vs After]

bridge - dns resolve nslookup result

Result of testing ICMP & PING from user PC.

bridge - icmp block result result


Linux is amazing 🙂 however Mikrotik is handy most of the times 🙂

February 26, 2018

Renew DHCP lease if Gateway not responding

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Tags: , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 8:49 AM

automation

Nothing Fancy , just short notes for script command reference purposes!

Following is a very simple 2 minutes instant cooked noddle type script. It will simply check the gateway status acquired by the dhcp-client using  ARP ping, , if it fails, then it will simply try to renew the ip by release/renew. Its very basic level, but its interesting to see how Mikrotik can really help you in day to day task by facilitated with the Tik level scripting !

Regard’s
Syed Jahanzaib

# Mikrotik Script - Tested with 5.x
# Script to check default gateway acquired by dhcp client on specific interface,
# Lot of room for improvements and modification but following was enough for some particular task,
# You can add BOUND status as well too, but i wanted this particular checking, you can add whatever you like
# Syed Jahanzaib == aacable AT hotmail DOT com - https:// aacable DOT wordpress DOT com
# Feb,2018
# Setting Variables

# Set Interface name which will get DHCP ip , This is the only option you may need to modify
:local INTERFACE "wan1"

# Number of Ping Count, how many times mikrotik should ping the target device
:local PINGCOUNT "5"

# Ping threshold, how many values should set alert, like if 5 out of 5 goes out
:local PINGTS "5"

:local i 0;
#:local i value=0;
:local F 0;
:local date;
:local time;

:log info "Checking default gateway for $INTERFACE interfaces."
:local DHCPGW [ /ip dhcp-client get [/ip dhcp-client find where interface=$INTERFACE ] gateway ]

# IF there is no default gateway on dhcpclient interface or if interface is disabled, then error
:if ([:len $DHCPGW] = 0) do={
:log error "No DEFAULT gateway found on $INTERFACE interface @ $date $time ..."
# Try to renew ip
/ip dhcp-client release $INTERFACE
/ip dhcp-client renew $INTERFACE
# Exit the script without further process ... I found this recently because in mikrotik there is no EXIT 1
error :error
}

# PING host $PINGCOUNT times
:for i from=1 to=$PINGCOUNT do={
:if ([/ping arp-ping=yes interface=$INTERFACE $DHCPGW count=1]=0) do={:set F ($F + 1)}
:delay 1;
};

# If no ping found then give error and do action
:if (($F=$PINGTS)) do={
:log error "PING to $DHCPGW via $INTERFACE is DOWN! @ $date $time "

# Take action if unable to ping gateway
/ip dhcp-client release $INTERFACE
/ip dhcp-client renew $INTERFACE
} else={
:log warning "PING to $DHCPGW via $INTERFACE is UP! @ $date $time "
}

February 20, 2018

Bursting with Mikrotik Burst ^o^

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Tags: , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 3:42 PM

Disclaimer! This is important!

Every Network is different , so one solution cannot be applied to all. Therefore try to understand logic & create your own solution as per your network scenario. Just dont follow copy paste.

If anybody here thinks I am an expert on this stuff, I am NOT certified in anything Mikrotik/Cisco/Linux or Windows. However I have worked with some core networks and I read , research & try stuff all of the time. So I am not speaking/posting about stuff I am formerly trained in, I pretty much go with experience and what I have learned on my own. And , If I don’t know something then I read & learn all about it.

So , please don’t hold me/my-postings to be always 100 percent correct. I make mistakes just like everybody else. However – I do my best, learn from my mistakes and always try to help others

Regard's
Syed Jahanzaib~

Mikrotik Burst feature provides predefined extra bandwidth for a limited period of time IF the user remains under the burst threshold limit, or else He will be limited to his max–limit package.

It is best explained here

https://wiki.mikrotik.com/wiki/Manual:Queues_-_Burst

 

Real life Example:


Explanation !

  • User IP (1-TARGET) on which this queue will be implemented
  • When this IP will start downloading he can reach download rate of 512 kbps (3-BURST_LIMIT)
  • Until he continue to do so for a minute (5-BURST_TIME) (period of time, in seconds, over which the average data rate is calculated. (This is NOT the time of actual burst, so on avg it will become 30s)
  • That is on an average basis his download remains 256 kbps (4-BURST_THRESHOLD) for a minute, (average of 30 seconds)
  • Then he will be get back limited to his max-limit (2-MAX_LIMIT)
  • When a user doesn’t use the traffic at all and 30 second average goes to 0 so the next time traffic is requested then it will be at the Burst speed (3-BURST_LIMIT).

 

Small BURST TIME may not give you correct results. So use reasonable time. in this example I used shorter time for demonstration purposes. A large burst isn’t a problem technically, it’s more of a business decision.

To calculate burst and relates values, download this excel sheet named “MikroTik burst simulator.xlsx” from my google drive & try it yourself … you will get clear picture


Another Example by joshaven! so that you can better understand —-


Now look at its Demo ,

 

 

February 5, 2018

Access other OP portal via Mikrotik Load Balancer

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Tags: — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 8:37 PM

portal routing in pcc.jpg

Disclaimer: I receive many emails from local operators on howto access other operators media sharing portal so that there local users can access them. Rather then replying each one separately & Due to time shortage, I am posting a simple method on how you can let your users access the outer operator media portal via your load balance mikrotik.  It is highly recommended to first search for the target web site/servers ip either using trace-route or wire shark. you have to conduct lengthy tracing by simply first try to connect with the target web site and start downloading multiple files, now using either TORCH, or using WIRE SHARK, you can get ips of all the servers which is being accessed by the torrent/idm which is connecting wit the target services. just make a note of these ip’s and add them in list either ip by ip or by /24 subnet.

Also It is recommended to use Mark Connections / Packets and Mark Routing. This way you wont have to create addition rules. So following pseudo codes is highly recommended to fit yourself in a famous quote that says `Work Smarter , not harder …`

Regard’s
Syed Jahanzaib

Example of WIRESHARK is posted bellow ….

wire-shark-example


Scenario:

We are using Mikrotik as pppoe server and dual vdsl links as WAN load balancer. We have acquired another Operator X line just to access there Entertainment portal which is great in media sharing files including video games etc. We want to let our user access there portal using our mikrotik without interfering with any other network.


Solution:

Quick & Dirty method. You should refine it when deploying in production environment.

We have configured an simple wifi router along with Operator X service in it. Now connect this router LAN line in your mikrotik (example Port 12).

IP Scheme:

  • Mikrotik LAN IP for pppoe users : eth0 > 192.168.0.1
  • Mikrotik PPPoE IP series (allowed users for internet) : 192.168.200.0/24
  • Mikrotik WAN-1 IP Series for DSL1 : eth1 > 192.168.1.1
  • Mikrotik WAN-2 IP Series for DSL2 : eth2 > 192.168.2.1
  • Mikrotik eth12 IP Series for Portal X : eth12 > 192.168.12.2 ( > 192.168.12.1 is wifi router with local OP service)
  • PORTAL-X IP Series: Web Portal – 123.123.123.0/24  Download servers – 172.17.1.0/24

Note:
For DNS, you can either use the OP-X dns servers (or wifi router as your dns as wifi router will get the DNS dynamically from the OP-X, or you can make static dns entries in your mikrotik dns server , and make sure all of your clients are using your mikrotik as there preferred dns server, you can also create a forced router to redirect all outgoing dns requests to your mirkotik. whatever is easier for you 🙂


Code!

# PPPoE Users IP List to access internet/portal
/ip firewall address-list
add address=192.168.200.0/24 comment="Allowed Users to Use Internet" list="allowed users"
# Add Portal X IP Series, you can get there list by inspecting torrent files, or using WIRESHARK
add address=123.123.123.0/24 list=portalx_list
add address=172.17.1.0/24 list=portalx_list

# Accept the PORTAL X packets to avoid processing them in PCC, then using routes we can route them via wifi router
/ip firewall mangle
add action=accept chain=prerouting comment="ACCEPT portalx_list PACKETS FROM PROCESSING THEM IN PCC - ZAIB" dst-address-list=portalx_list src-address-list="pppoe_allowed_users"

# Allow requests going to Portal X interface (to wifi router with OP X service)
/ip firewall nat
add action=masquerade chain=srcnat comment=ALLOW_ACCESS_TO_portalx_list_INTERFACE out-interface=eth12 src-address-list="pppoe_allowed_users

# Since we have excluded the Portal.X from PCC, therefor we have to create ROUTE for these packets
# So that these packets should route via Wi.Fi Router (connected with OP X service)
/ip route
add distance=1 dst-address=123.123.123.0/24 gateway=192.168.12.1 comment=route_for_portalx_site_going_via_local_wifi_router
add distance=1 dst-address=172.17.1.0/24 gateway=192.168.12.1 comment=route_for_portalx_site_going_via_local_wifi_router

# In the end , simply create QUEUE to allow more bandwidth going to Portal X servers,
# Again, if you had used packet marking, then you can use marked pkts & use single queue, more efficient
/queue simple
add max-limit=1G/1G name="portalx_list.torrent queue-1G" target=172.17.17.0/24
add max-limit=1G/1G name=portalx_list-public-ips-1G target=123.123.123.0/24

January 27, 2018

Mikrotik: Schedule script to run in specific day(s) of week only

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Tags: , , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 1:48 PM


Scenario:

In mikrotik, we want to execute a script which should run on following days at given time. Monday to Friday , 8am Sounds easy enough! but unfortunately Mikrotik doesn’t provides flexible scheduler like windows which let you select days by just clicking. Therefore we have to create some smart function that calculate current day and pass the variable to action part in the script, which than compare variable with its specific days like mon-fri & if it matches then take action ELSE goto Sleep 🙂

(more…)

January 23, 2018

Manipulating Date Functions in Mikrotik

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Tags: , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 12:12 PM

.

Scenario:

In Mikrotik router , we have a script which is scheduled to run every 5 minutes. It gets in+out bytes for specific interface usage (using firewall counters) and save/add in a file,  when date changes, it simply calculate the total usage and sends report via email to the admin. it’s pretty handy and quick way to get your wan usage with customization. Example of email report via script:

mail for wan total

Problem:

if the script is sending email to the admin about whole day usage at 12:05 am , it will send the current date, whereas the usage is for yesterday. therefore we want to display yesterday day date in the subject. like Current date - 1 day

Solution:

The below script along with separate supporting function script, can manipulate date function in mikrotik. Therefore using this script function we can get yesterday date in our email subject to show correct date.

Surely there must be more simpler methods that I am really unaware of I used this method and it works fine. in Linux date manipulation is way too easy example

TODAY=date -d "yesterday" '+%Y-%m-%d'
But in Mikrotik we dont have such easy functions.

Ok moving forward… We need to make one main function script that can be called by any other script to get the required date manipulation.This will be one time script & will function only if its called from another script.

Script# – For date manipulation function
Name: func_date

# This script is for Mikrotik ROS to manipulate date functions as per requirements , you can modify it as required
# This function script is copied from following mikrotik forum. please see
# https://forum.mikrotik.com/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=127050&p=625209#p625209

# Syed Jahanzaib

:local mdays {31;28;31;30;31;30;31;31;30;31;30;31}
:local months {"jan"=1;"feb"=2;"mar"=3;"apr"=4;"may"=5;"jun"=6;"jul"=7;"aug"=8;"sep"=9;"oct"=10;"nov"=11;"dec"=12}
:local monthr {"jan";"feb";"mar";"apr";"may";"jun";"jul";"aug";"sep";"oct";"nov";"dec"}
:local dd [:tonum [:pick $date 4 6]]
:local yy [:tonum [:pick $date 7 11]]
:local month [:pick $date 0 3]
:local mm (:$months->$month)
:set dd ($dd+$days)
:local dm [:pick $mdays ($mm-1)]
:if ($mm=2 && (($yy&3=0 && ($yy/100*100 != $yy)) || $yy/400*400=$yy) ) do={ :set dm 29 }
:while ($dd>$dm) do={
:set dd ($dd-$dm)
:set mm ($mm+1)
:if ($mm>12) do={
:set mm 1
:set yy ($yy+1)
}
:set dm [:pick $mdays ($mm-1)]
:if ($mm=2 && (($yy&3=0 && ($yy/100*100 != $yy)) || $yy/400*400=$yy) ) do={ :set dm 29 }
};
:local res "$[:pick $monthr ($mm-1)]/"
:if ($dd<10) do={ :set res ($res."0") }
:set $res "$res$dd/$yy"
:return $res

Script#2 – Our script that requires Yesterday Date
Name: test

In this example we will get YESTERDAY date.

# You can change the DAYS (-1) as per your requirements like previous or ahead using +)

:local shiftDate [:parse [/system script get func_date source]]
:local DT ([/system clock get date])
:local LASTDAY [$shiftDate date=$DT days=-1]
:put "TODAY Date = $DT"
:put "YESTERDAY date = $LASTDAY"

DRY RUN!

Now run the test script which will result in yesterday date, as showed below …

[zaib@CCR_GW] > /sys scr run test
# OUTPUT RESULT

TODAY Date = jan/23/2018
YESTERDAY date = jan/22/2018

Now you can use such function in any script as per your own requirements…

Regard’s
Syed Jahanzaib

 

November 8, 2017

TikTik – Script to disconnect hotspot user if its already active in pppoe

Filed under: Mikrotik Related — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 1:27 PM

its a weird world we live in !

Fix the root cause that is making issue , dont always go for workarounds

WORKAROUND :

Add this in in Hotspot > User Profile > Default > Scripts > On Login)

# Check if this hotspot user is already logged in on PPPOE on same mikrotik, then kick HOTSPOT
:local uname $user;
:local u;
:foreach u in=[/ppp active find name=$user ] do={
:log warning "$user ID is already active in pppoe. Now disconnecting from HotSpot ... Done!"
:foreach i in=[/ip hotspot active find user=$uname] do= {
/ip hotspot active remove numbers=$i;
}
}

123

.

With some modification you can add script in pppoe login profile as well, which will check if user is already active in hotspot then kick pppoe or hs user.

regard’s
J.

October 31, 2017

Mikrotik with Freeradius/mySQL – Auto MAC Binding on 1st Login – Part 4

Filed under: freeradius, Mikrotik Related — Tags: , , , , , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 3:30 PM

mac_auth_radius_mysql

~ Auto Mac Binding via EXEC / PHP in Freeradius 2.x ~
! From the CORE of FREERADIUS !
By
Syed jahanzaib

FREERADIUS WITH MIKROTIK – Part #1

 

There are others parts too, look at part-1 for listing, i will update only part-1 listing


Personnel Note:

[At end of this guide I used TRIGGER method to auto insert the mac address of user if there is no mac entry in the radcheck table for his username, Trigger are more efficient method in my opinion.]

This post is just for demonstration purposes. in production environment you should make your own module and add it in proper relevant places. This post contains just minimalist working config to begin with. Make sure to refine it in prd environment.

This is another post about freeradius. My aim is to let people know that creating your own Radius Billing system is not ROCKET SCIENCE. The only thing required is the ultimate passion to achieve the goal & with the proper googling , reading a LOT, understand logic’s, then you can do all on your own. Just wanted to break the image that most of professionals don’t like to share there knowledge. I strongly encourage to read the FR mailing list and Google


OP Requirements:

[ Sort of Wired one 😉 ]

We have a working Freeradius installation. All users can login to mikrotik which verify user account authentication requests via this radius. All working fine. Now OP wants to add Auto MAC binding feature so that when user first time login to NAS, his MAC should auto binds with his account, so next time if he tries to login from another workstation, he must get access denied.


Components used in this guide:

  • Ubuntu 12.4 / x86
  • Freeradius 2.1.10 [Default apt-get installation]
  • MySQL 5.5.47 [Default apt-get installation]

SOLUTION #1

To fulfill such weird requirements, we have to use external program example PHP program (via exec) which will be executed when user gets connect successfully. It will then look in RADCHECK table for this specific user MAC address value name “Calling-Station-Id”. If it’s unable to find it, then it will add the entry so that next time user will login his MAC will be verified by the CHECKVAL module in freeradius to match the mac address. If there is mac address entry, it will simply ignore and process further , will also print message that “MAC Entry already found – z@iB”

First enable the CHECKVAL module in following file > /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

nano /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default

Search & uncomment the checkval module. Save & Exit.

Now edit EXEC module file by

nano /etc/freeradius/modules/exec

Remove all previous contents (if its lab testing otherwise be careful editing this file) & paste following

exec {
wait = yes
program = "/usr/bin/php /temp/checkmac.php %{User-Name} %{Calling-Station-Id}"
input_pairs = request
}

Save & Exit.

Now create the php program which will be executed by above module.

mkdir /temp
mkdir /temp/checkmac.php
touch /temp/checkmac.php
nano /temp/checkmac.php

and use following to paste make sure to modify relevant details …

>

checkmac.php contents

 0) {
printf ("MAC Entry already found by ZAiBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB");
}
else {
printf ("Seems to be New User, adding its MAC address in table ...");
mysql_query("INSERT into radcheck (UserName, Attribute, op, Value) values ('$argv[1]', 'Calling-Station-Id', ':=', '$argv[2]')");
}
?>

TESTING ….

Start FR in debug mode by freeradius -X and try to login with the test ID from your workstation (or use the radtest or ntradping)


rad_recv: Access-Request packet from host 192.168.0.1 port 42449, id=45, length=188
Service-Type = Framed-User
Framed-Protocol = PPP
NAS-Port = 15728851
NAS-Port-Type = Ethernet
User-Name = "zaib"
Calling-Station-Id = "0C:84:DC:1E:0B:8D"
Called-Station-Id = "service1"
NAS-Port-Id = "ether10"
MS-CHAP-Challenge = 0x49c4549501e07fad5e6dae708bc815ed
MS-CHAP2-Response = 0x0100acaa712e29adad9abb681c5ef666e69300000000000000003cd5a092d7c816de798b7f5d09acba6f04eeed208cd6c19b
NAS-Identifier = "MIKROTIK"
NAS-IP-Address = 192.168.0.1
# Executing section authorize from file /etc/freeradius/sites-enabled/default
+- entering group authorize {...}
++[preprocess] returns ok
++[chap] returns noop
[mschap] Found MS-CHAP attributes. Setting 'Auth-Type = mschap'
++[mschap] returns ok
++[digest] returns noop
[suffix] No '@' in User-Name = "zaib", looking up realm NULL
[suffix] No such realm "NULL"
++[suffix] returns noop
[eap] No EAP-Message, not doing EAP
++[eap] returns noop
[exec] expand: %{User-Name} -> zaib
[exec] expand: %{Calling-Station-Id} -> 0C:84:DC:1E:0B:8D
Exec-Program output: Seems to be New User, adding its MAC address in table ...
Exec-Program-Wait: plaintext: Seems to be New User, adding its MAC address in table ...
Exec-Program: returned: 0
++[exec] returns ok

As you CAN SEE

“Exec-Program output: Seems to be New User, adding its MAC address in table …”

Now see the difference …

RADCHECK TABLE, Before Login …

1- before login

RADCHECK TABLE, After Login …

2- after login ok

When user will login again, radcheck table will be searched, if the mac found it will simply skip the add part and print the statement

[exec] expand: %{User-Name} -> zaib
[exec] expand: %{Calling-Station-Id} -> 0C:84:DC:1E:0B:8D
Exec-Program output: MAC Entry already found
Exec-Program-Wait: plaintext: MAC Entry already found
Exec-Program: returned: 0
++[exec] returns ok

& If the user will login from any other mac/workstation, he will be denied access.


2#
Method #2
Trigger approach to add MAC address automatically upon user connection

Use following TRIGGER on radacct table. It will add the MAC address for the user in RADCHECK table after user is successfully connected. (or you can modify it as well)

--
-- Triggers `radacct`
--
DELIMITER $$
CREATE TRIGGER `chk_mac_after_insert` AFTER INSERT ON `radacct` FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SET @mac = (SELECT count(*) from radcheck where username=New.username and attribute='Calling-Station-ID');
IF (@mac = 0) THEN
INSERT into radcheck (username,attribute,op,value) values (NEW.username,'Calling-Station-ID',':=',NEW.callingstationid);
UPDATE users SET mac = NEW.callingstationid where username = NEW.username;
END IF;
END
$$
DELIMITER ;

trigger for mac add.JPG


3# Allow Multiple MAC Login along with CHECKVAL !

We know that CHECKVAL allows only single mac to connect. Recently there was a requirement that a user have 2 systems that he uses in day & night timings. Since he had no wifi router,  therefore he wanted to have 2 MAC allowed. (one Id will connect at one time). So we can Use the += operator instead to allow multiple mac if we are using CHECKVAL operative to limit mac address!

multiple mac

INSERT INTO `radcheck` (`id`, `username`, `attribute`, `op`, `value`) VALUES
(1, ‘zaib’, ‘Cleartext-Password’, ‘:=’, ‘zaib’),
(11, ‘zaib’, ‘Expiration’, ‘:=’, ’25 Feb 2019 17:00:00′),
(27, ‘zaib’, ‘Calling-Station-ID’, ‘+=’, ’24:26:42:D4:BC:43′),
(42, ‘zaib’, ‘Calling-Station-ID’, ‘+=’, ’00:0C:29:B9:D8:A0′);[/soureceode]

 


Regard’s
Syed Jahanzaib ~

October 19, 2017

Prevent Mikrotik from Chocking with Cisco Inter-Vlan Routing

Filed under: Cisco Related, Mikrotik Related — Tags: , , — Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 4:50 PM

overload

Disclaimer:
I donot have professional level expertise with the mikrotik & specially Cisco. It’s just personnel R&D that sometimes leads me to a working solution. After posting on the internet, I got some clues & Alhamdoillah it worked !


Scenario: [example]

OP have mini ISP setup. Different areas are connected with Cisco 3750 switch where Vlan(s) for each port is configured. Trunk port is connected with Mikrotik Routerboard where vlan interfaces are configured accordingly. DHCP for each VLAN is configured on the Mikrotik RB which provides different subnet to each vlan with default gateway pointing to each VLAN IP.

PPPoE Server is configured on the RB to facilitate ppp dialing for each vlan. As per policy, user must dial pppoe dialer to connect with the mikrotik PPP server in order to access internet.


Problem:

OP have few media sharing server located on Vlan No 3. When user starts downloading heavy media files from the Vlan No 3, all of his traffic routes via Mikrotik Router which creates load on router.


Solution # 1: [that worked partially]

After some R&D, I implemented following

  • Moved DHCP role to Cisco
  • Setup intervlan routing. enabled ip routing
  • Added default gateway in DHCP options pointing to Cisco local vlan ip respectively

This partially solves the problem. When user join the LAN, he gets IP address from the Cisco dhcp with default gateway to its respective vlan IP. all goes well , communication was happening fine with in vlan without touching the Mikrotik. But as soon as users dial the PPPOE dialer, his traffic starts routing via Mikrotik . after some troubleshooting it appears that when user dials pppoe dialer, his routes changes and ppp gets preference over other routes which force all traffic to go via RB.

As showed in the image below …

Load on Trunk Port when ppp user download from vlan no 3

 

routes and ipconfig of client before dhcp option


Solution # 2: [worked 100% as required]

In Cisco Switch DHCP settings for each vlan, Remove Default Gateway,  and add static routes for the sharing media servers subnet via using DHCP classless static routes option

Sounds fair enough :~)


Working Example Config for Cisco Switch 3750

# Cisco Switch Part

[Model: ws-c3750e-24pd / Version 15.0(2)SE10a ]


!
system mtu routing 1500
ip routing
!
ip dhcp pool vlan2
network 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0
dns-server 101.11.11.36
option 121 ip 24.192.168.3 192.168.2.1 ## This option provides route information , /24.x is the subnet info and other is gw
!
ip dhcp pool vlan3
network 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 ## This is media server vlan, we have added manual ip & gateway pointing to vlan ip 192.168.3.0
! to add multiple routes use below
! option 121 ip 24.192.168.3 192.168.2.1 24.192.168.100 192.168.2.1
!
ip dhcp pool vlan4
network 192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0
option 121 ip 24.192.168.3 192.168.4.1 ## This option provides route information , /24.x is the subnet info and other is gw
!

! This port is connected with the Mikrotik RB
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport mode trunk

! This port is connected with user area 2
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2
switchport access vlan 2
switchport mode access

! This port is connected with local FTP/Media sharing server's
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3
switchport access vlan 3
switchport mode access

!This port is connected with user area 4
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/4
switchport access vlan 4
switchport mode access
!
interface Vlan1
ip address 192.168.254.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Vlan2
ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Vlan3
ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Vlan4
ip address 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0
! Following route is pointing to Mikrotik RB
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.254.2
!

# Mikrotik Routerboard Part


/interface ethernet

set [ find default-name=ether1 ] name=LAN-TRUNK

/interface vlan
add interface=LAN-TRUNK name=vlan2 vlan-id=2
add interface=LAN-TRUNK name=vlan3 vlan-id=3
add interface=LAN-TRUNK name=vlan4 vlan-id=4

# It is recommended to use small subnet, like /29 for below (zaib)
/ip address
add address=192.168.254.2/24 interface=LAN-TRUNK network=192.168.254.0

/interface pppoe-server server
add default-profile=pppoe-profile disabled=no interface=vlan2 max-mru=1480 max-mtu=1480 mrru=1600 one-session-per-host=yes service-name=service2
add default-profile=pppoe-profile disabled=no interface=vlan3 max-mru=1480 max-mtu=1480 mrru=1600 one-session-per-host=yes service-name=service3
add default-profile=pppoe-profile disabled=no interface=vlan4 max-mru=1480 max-mtu=1480 mrru=1600 one-session-per-host=yes service-name=service4

# FTP / Media Sharing Server Part

at your FTP server, which is under vlan no 3, define static ip like 192.168.3.2 and point its gateway to 192.168.3.1, That’s It 🙂

Results are showed as below …

 

client ROUTEs and ipconfig AFTER DHCP OPTIOIN

 

download gpoign via vlan only after addding dhcp option

 

no load on mikrotik router and local vlan download going via local vlan

 


 

Note:

I have posted minimalist configuration to reduce any complication. Most of parts are quite self explanatory. This exercise was done successfully in LAB & required results were achieved. However you must consult with some Cisco expert & conduct your own testing  before implementing it on production.

Also you may want to use ACL in order to restrict access to shared resources, YKWIM


Regard’s
Syed Jahanzaib

 

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